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Chapter 29 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum.
Unit 5: The Evolutionary History of Diversity Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land Review
  1. Land plants (kingdom ) evolved from algae, and are most closely related to the . Five innovations among the Plantae are:
  2. Bryophytes consist of three phyla of small plants: (Hepatophyta), (Anthocerophyta), and (Bryophyta ).
    • The large are anchored by , and produce which fuse to yield smaller .
    • Sporophytes produce haploid which grow to become the .
    • Male gametes are flagellated that short distances to fertilize the egg.
  3. Vascular plants evolved in the period, and have life cycles with dominant ; their spores develop into bisexual .
  4. Vascular plants possess specialized vascular tissues called and .
    • Xylem contains dead cells called and elements which carry and minerals up from the system through the system.
    • Phloem includes living cells arranged into tubes that distribute and other organic products from the .
  5. Seedless vascular plants form two phyla.
    • Lycophyta includes mosses, mosses, and .
    • Pterophyta includes , , and ferns and their relatives.
  6. Ancestors of modern lycophytes, horsetails, and ferns grew to great heights during the period that may have led to global cooling. Incomplete decomposition of organic matter from these forests eventually became and other fossil fuels.

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Chapter 30 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum.
Unit 5: The Evolutionary History of Diversity Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants Review
  1. Seed plants are : different kinds of spores produce reduced male and female . The gametophytes produce protected in female and male grains.
    • Megaspores develop into which contain female gametophytes,
    • Microspores develop into grains which contain male gametophytes.
    • When a pollen grain is transferred to the part of a plant containing the , it can germinate and discharge two into the female gametophyte within the ovule.
    • This process of is called and results in a containing a sporophyte , along with its food supply, packaged in a protective derived from the integument.
    • The pollen eliminates the need to swim through water and allows for wide by or animal .
  2. Gymnosperms (conifers) bear “naked” , typically on , and include four phyla: Cycadophyta, Gingkophyta, Gnetophyta, and Coniferophyta.
  3. The gymnosperm life cycle shows a dominant generation, grains transferring to ovules, and the development of from fertilized .
  4. Angiosperms are seed plants that possess reproductive structures called and .
    • A flower is a specialized shoot with modified leaves: enclose the flower, may be brightly colored to attract pollinators, produce pollen, and produce ovules.
    • A Fruit typically consists of a mature with seeds. Fruits are adapted for seed by , , or animals to new locations.
  5. The angiosperm life cycle includes a fertilization which produces a food-storing in addition to the .
  6. Angiosperms have evolved many relationships with animals in and seed . Seed plants provide a vast range of products from and to many .
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