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Chapter 10 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum.
Unit 2: The Cell Photosynthesis Review
  1. Plants and other are the of ecosystems. Most autotrophs are and use the process called to convert energy into the energy in food.
  2. Heterotrophs are (including decomposers), in the ecosystem, and obtain their energy from other organisms.
  3. Photosynthesis is a process where water is and carbon dioxide is to . This is the reverse of respiration, where is oxidized and is reduced.
  4. In plants, photosynthesis occurs in organelles called which contain membranous sacs called folded into stacks called , and surrounded by a fluid-filled .
  5. There are two major stages: the light reactions and the Calvin cycle (light-independent reactions).
    • The light reactions occur in the . Pigment molecules such as and are clustered in complexes where they absorb portions of the light spectrum and reach an state.
    • The excited electron is passed through a series of reactions including and transport chains (ETCs), where the captured energy is used to produce and reduce NADP+ to , an electron acceptor. This process consumes and releases .
    • The Calvin cycle occurs in the and can proceed without light. The and from the light reactions drive the synthesis of from carbon .
  6. C4 plants minimize the cost of by incorporating CO2 into -carbon compounds in cells, then exported to bundle cells, where they release CO2 used in the Calvin cycle.
  7. The production of carbon compounds from CO2 is called fixation. These organic compounds provide the and material for ecosystems.
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