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Chapter 51 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum.
Unit 8: Ecology Behavioral Ecology Review
  1. is the study of animal behavior, the response of an animal to a . A behavior may have ("how") and ("why") causes.
  2. Innate behaviors are determined and include siimple movement such as , and , an oriented movement toward or away from a stimulus. A action pattern (FAP) is triggered by an external stimulus. More complex behaviors such as migration in birds are also largely genetically programmed.
  3. Animals communicate by using , behaviors that cause a change in another animal's behavior.
    • signals include that allow communication through .
    • signals control courtship behaviors of many insects and birds.
  4. Many animals exhibit during an early stage of development called the period, when they can basic survival knowledge such as the identity of their parents or .
  5. occurs when behaviors are modified based on specific experiences. conditioning is a type of learning in which a stimulus is associated with a (reward or punishment). conditioning occurs when an animal learns to associate a with a .
  6. Mating behavior includes , , and . In many species, females choose their mate in a process called selection, or choice.
  7. Males often for females in a process called selection that can variation among males and involve behavior.
  8. fitness extends the theory of selection to explain social behavior, or selection: an individual can proliferate its by producing its own or offspring of close relatives.
  9. The selective advantage of altruism can be quantified by measuring
    • The to the recipient (B)
    • The to the altruist (C)
    • The of relatedness (r)
    Natural selection favors altruism when rB > C ( rule).

 Animations   Movies   Words  Appendix  Summary  Art  Art 
Chapter 52 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum.
Unit 8: Ecology Population Ecology Review
  1. A is a group of individuals of a single living in the same area.
  2. Population (number of individuals per area or volume) results from and of individuals; this may change over time as reflected in the population's .
  3. A population may exhibit , , or dispersion patterns, often delineated by boundaries.
  4. In a closed population (no and emigration), the rate of population growth can become , exhibiting a curve, when the rate exceeds rate for extended periods.
  5. Eventually this growth slows to a growth when the capacity (K) of the environment is approached, resulting in a (S-shaped) curve.
  6. The finite resources available may lead organisms to make trade-offs between and , reflected in their history traits. Some species exhibit , or "big-bang" reproduction, reproduce a single time and die, instead of the repeated reproduction of species that exhibit .
  7. The human population increased slowly until about and then began to grow , until mid-20th century. Local populations tend to undergo a transition from high birth and death rates to low ones as economies develop. The regional growth patterns are reflected in structure diagrams.
    Graph It: Age Pyramids and Population Growth
  8. The capacity of Earth for humans is uncertain, but can be estimated by the footprint of different populations. At more than 6 billion people, the biosphere is already in ecological .
  9. What is your ecological footprint?
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