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Chapter 54 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum.
Unit 8: Ecology Ecosystems Review
  1. An ecosystem consists of all the organisms in a , and all the abiotic factors with which they interact. Energy through ecosystems, while matter within them.
  2. Energy entering an ecosystem is converted to energy by primary ; the total amount of energy converted is called primary production (GPP). Some of that energy is used by the producers for ; the remaining energy available to consumers is called primary production ( NPP ).
  3. In aquatic ecosystems, production is mostly confined to the zone, where the nutrient are often or , or sometimes .
  4. production is the amount of energy in consumers' food that is converted to their own , and can be represented in a pyramid of .
  5. In most ecosystems, this low trophic efficiency is also reflected in a pyramid of . Most ecosystems also show a pyramid of . Some ecosystems show biomass pyramids due to rapid of producers.
  6. Chemicals released by humans can become in successive trophic levels in a process called magnification, becoming toxic to higher level consumers.
  7. The chemical that serve as life's nutrients occur in limited quantities, and between and reservoirs of ecosystems.
    • The cycle is driven by solar energy on a global scale.
    • The cycle reflects the reciprocal processes of and cellular . Review.
    • The cycle involves local cycles between organisms and soil or water. Review.
    • The cycle is relatively localized.
    • (detritivores) play a key role in the general pattern of biogeochemical cycling.
  8. Large-scale agriculture removes from the soil; excess fertilizer added to the soil can runoff into streams, and together with discharge, can lead to , excessive algal growth in aquatic ecosystems.
  9. Combustion of fuels releases excess and into the atmosphere, forming and acid and causing precipitation.
  10. Burning fossil fuels also releases excess levels of carbon into the atmosphere, which is associated with global due to the effect.
  11. The release of (CFCs) and other chlorine-containing chemicals has resulted in depletion; a thinning of the ozone layer which protects life on Earth from (UV) radiation.
    How Does Acid Precipitation Affect Trees?
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