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Chapter 27 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum.
Unit 5: The Evolutionary History of Diversity Prokaryotes Review
  1. Most prokaryotes are microscopic, and they can be found almost anywhere. The most common shapes are (cocci), (bacilli), and .
  2. Many bacteria exhibit , the directional movement in response to a , by propelling themselves with .
  3. The prokaryotic genome is usually a circular ring of DNA located in a region; some also have smaller rings of DNA called .
  4. Prokaryotic cells lack , though some do possess specialized to perform metabolic functions. The cell wall of many prokaryotes is covered by a protective , and many also form persistent in harsh conditions.
  5. Response to stain classified bacterial species into two groups based on amount of in the cell : gram- and gram- .
  6. Molecular analysis has now revealed several among the gram–negative prokaryotes, while another group is now assigned its own domain of .
  7. Prokaryotes play crucial roles in the biosphere.
    • Most are and recycle nutrients in the ecosystem.
    • Some are nitrogen and convert atmospheric (N2) to an organic form such as (NH3) that can be used by other organisms.
    • Some are and also release oxygen for aerobic organisms to use.
    • In the cyanobacterium Anabaena, cells and -fixing cells exchange metabolic products in a cooperative .
  8. Some prokaryotes are human pathogens, such as the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Pathogenic prokaryotes release two types of .
    • are secreted , such as those that cause anthrax and cholera.
    • are lipopolysaccharide components of some bacterial and released only when the bacteria, such as Salmonella which causes typhoid fever, .

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Chapter 28 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum.
Unit 5: The Evolutionary History of Diversity Protists Review
  1. The kingdom formerly known as is crumbling. Protists are more diverse than any other eukaryotes and consist of as well as organisms.
  2. In the food web, protists can be , which contain chloroplasts and other plastids, , which absorb organic molecules or ingest food particles, or , which combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition.
  3. Much of protist diversity has its origins in : a was engulfed by an ancestral eukaryote, which diversified into algae and algae, some of which were subsequently engulfed by other eukaryotes.
  4. Euglenozoa, such as Euglena, contain a crystalline rod inside their .
  5. Dinoflagellates are photosynthetic and often contain internal plates of ; two propel them through water in a spinning motion.
  6. Ciliates use to move and feed, and have large and small . An example is Paramecium, which uses its micronucleus in conjugation, a sexual process in which two individuals exchange micronuclei.
  7. Golden algae ( ) can be unicellular or colonial and contain yellow and brown for photosynthesis. Some species are and can absorb organic compounds or ingest food particles by .
  8. Brown algae ( ), are multicellular "seaweeds" that include Giant which forms aquatic "forests", and Weed which has air bladders to help it float.
    • An innovation among the multicellular algae is the of generations.
  9. Red algae and green algae are the closest relatives of land plants.
    • Red algae ( ) contain the pigment , which masks the green of . Some are multicellular, edible "seaweeds".
    • Green algae ( ) contain that give them their green color. The can live symbiotically with fungi as .
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