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Chapter 35 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum.
Unit 6: Plant Form and Function Plant Structure, Growth, and Development Review
  1. Plants, like multicellular animals, have composed of different , which are in turn composed of . The basic organs of vascular plants are , , and , organized into a system and a system.
    • A root the plant to soil, absorbs minerals and , and often organic nutrients.
    • A stem consists of alternating , the points at which leaves are attached, and . At the angle between a leaf and the stem is an bud that is usually dormant, while a bud is located near the , where growth is concentrated, due to dominance.
    • The leaf consists of a flattened and a stalk called a . Most monocots have veins (vascular tissue), while most dicots have veins.
  2. Most plants have three tissue systems: , , and .
    • The dermal tissue system consists of the and is often covered with a waxy .
    • The vascular tissue system transports materials within the plant. conveys water and dissolved minerals from into the . transports organic nutrients throughout the plant.
    • Ground tissue includes cells specialized for functions such as , , and .
  3. The major types of plant cells include , , , , and cells.
  4. are regions of cell growth. meristems are located at the tips of and in the buds of shoots where growth occurs to lengthen the plant. meristems add thickness to stems and roots of plants through growth.
  5. Secondary growth occurs in the cambium and cambium of stems. The older layers of xylem (heartwood) no longer transport water and minerals, leaving that function to the outer .
    Review: Roots, Stems, and Leaves. Review: Primary and Secondary Growth.

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Chapter 36 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum.
Unit 6: Plant Form and Function Transport in Vascular Plants Review
  1. One adaptation of terrestrial plants is the system which allow some to grow to great heights. The selective of a plant cell's membrane regulates the movement of into and out of the cell, mediated by transport proteins. Proton create a hydrogen ion , setting up a membrane that can be harnessed to transport solutes by or .
  2. In the aquatic environment of a cell, the effects of (measured by or osmotic potential) and pressure (measured by potential) give rise to potential. A plant cell in an environment with a solute concentration (hypertonic) will lose water and become ; in an environment with a solute concentration (hypotonic) it will gain water and become . Changes in water potential is a major mechanism in flow.
  3. Three major compartments in solute regulation are the cell and the , separated by the plasma , and the . The membrane (tonoplast) mediates intracellular transport, while the and the provide intercellular transport.
  4. Water and minerals are absorbed through the of root tips, where root increase the surface area. Most plants form symbiotic relationships with fungi to form , consisting of plant roots united with fungal , which facilitate the absorption of water and minerals.
  5. Root cells pump mineral ions into the of the vascular , which lowers the potential and generates osmotic pressure, or pressure.
  6. Photosynthesis results in , the loss of water vapor through of leaves. The diameter of the stoma is controlled by cells.
  7. Transpiration produces negative pressure, lowering the potential, and pulls water from the into the leaf. The transpirational pull on xylem is transmitted to the root tips by and
  8. is the transport of organic nutrients via . Phloem sap is mostly sucrose and travels from a sugar to a sugar .
  9. Sugar is loaded into members by and pathways. Sugar loading water potential and induces water intake at the source, initiating a flow of sap toward the sink.
    Review: Transport of Xylem Sap. Review: Translocation of Phloem Sap.
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